What’s the Science?

Gender and sex are not the same thing. With that said, we still encounter people saying “You can’t change chromosomes” or “XX and XY tell you if you’re a boy or a girl.” That’s a very rudimentary understanding of biology, however, and there is a lot of evidence to show that gender really is in the brain.

What Science Tells Us

Gender Identity: The Development of Usual and Unusual Patterns — MedScape

The Transgender Brain: A Summary of 36 Studies  — TransasCity.org

Collection of 45+ Peer-Reviewed Papers Regarding Sex Differentiation of the Human Brain — AE Brain

Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain — Netherlands Institute for Brain Research

Does Having a Y Chromosome Make Someone Male? — Intersex Society of North America

Do Your Homework, Dr. Ablow (A Summary of 15 Medical Studies) — Brynn Tannehill

Neuroscience Proves What We’ve Known All Along: Gender Exists on a Spectrum — Amanda Koehn

Evidence About Biological Nature of Gender Identity — Endocrine Practice

Hormonal Exposure and Its Role in Gender Development in Humans — Multiple Peer-Reviewed Studies

Study Finds Transgender Children Are Clear About Their Identity — Stony Brook University

Transgender Kids Show Consistent Gender Identity Across Measures — Association of Psychological Science

Study Shows Positive Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities — American Academy of Pediatrics

Myths About Transition Regret — Brynn Tannehill

Health and Medical Organization Statements on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity/Expression, and “Reparative Therapy” — Lambda Legal